How Fish Adapt to Darkness

How Fish Adapt to Darkness

There are millions of examples of plants and animals adapting to their environment. Need to blend in? Change your coloring. Need to crack a different kind of nut? Change your beak. But while we have lots of examples of adaptation, we rarely have the ability to look at what genetic changes caused the physical ones. Not every physical trait shares the same kind of genetic basis. An example is anteaters, aardvarks, and armadillos. They all have sticky tongues for catching ants even though they aren’t closely related species. This is called convergent evolution. Scientists at the University of Victoria in Canada have been able to find the exact genetic changes that lead to differences in vision in a super cool little fish called the threespine stickleback, and it turns out that those genetic changes are the exact same ones that happened in the ancestor of spiny-rayed fish like salmon, carp, and bass over 198 Million years ago! It’s super difficult to track genetic changes that lead to physical adaptations since they usually take place over many generations and hundreds of years. Whereas the career of a scientist is maybe about 50 years. If you’re lucky! To study genetic changes easily you need a place where an adaptation is occurring multiple times on a timescale fast enough that you can actually see it happen. And that is exactly what these researchers did! They looked at a small fish called the threespine stickleback that lives in a variety of lakes in an archipelago off the coast of British Columbia, but it turns out that not all of these lakes are created equally. There are two different types of lake. Clearwater and blackwater. Clearwater lakes are just like they sound. The water looks pretty clear and there’s a lot of light so the fish have no trouble seeing, and much like the ocean or other bodies of clearwater, the light in them is mostly blue. Blackwater lakes are different. They’re created when the water is stained with tannins, which are molecules that you might be familiar with if you jumpstart your morning with beverages like tea or coffee. The color and astringent or bitter-ish flavor of coffee is caused by tannins. This tannin stained water actually absorbs most of the blue light that’s shining from the Sun, and any light that would reflect off the sides or the bottom of the lake is also absorbed. This means that the fish are essentially in a lake like a photography darkroom where the light is mostly red and it’s only shining from directly above. Because of the huge differences between clearwater and blackwater, the sticklebacks have adapted their vision to one lake or the other. But how did they do it? To find the genetic source of the differences in fish vision between clearwater and blackwater lakes, the researchers took fish from each of the different kinds of lakes and looked at their DNA to see how it was different. But in addition to looking at fish that were already adapted to each of their environments, they also took some fish that were already living in a blackwater lake and moved them to an unoccupied clearwater lake. They then checked on how they were adapting for the next 19 years! Through these two types of experiments, the researchers found the source for the vision adaptation. It all boils down to seven amino acids in a fish eye protein that recognizes light. Those seven amino acids help tune that protein from being sensitive to blue light to being sensitive to red. Just like you would tune a radio from one station to another. The researchers also checked out the genes of fish that are distantly related to the threespine stickleback and they saw that the same amino acid changes that are happening in the stickleback right now occurred to those fish almost 198 million years ago! It’s pretty cool how this happened. So about 198 million years ago in the ancestor of all spiny-rayed fish, the gene which encodes for the protein that recognizes light accidentally got duplicated! Just like hitting copy and paste. But then, over time, those two copies started to become different. One recognized blue light and the other copy recognized red. Exactly like what’s happening in the sticklebacks now! But wait… If all spiny-rayed fish have these two genes… and the threespined stickleback is a spiny-rayed fish… then it should already have both the blue and red sensitive protein! It should already be able to adapt! Well it turns out the stickleback actually lost one of the copies, just like you might lose your great-grandmother’s pearl necklace in going from generation to generation. So, now they have to reevolve the same amino acid changes to adapt to blackwater versus clearwater every time they move into a new lake. Like Sisyphus rolling his rock uphill! As a major Batman nerd, I’m reminded of when Bane says his classic quote in The Dark Knight Rises: I choose to think that he’s referring to evolution! There is a difference between being put into a dark environment and actually thriving there for multiple generations. Just look at the threespine stickleback! Thanks so much for watching! Subscribe to my channel for new videos every other Friday! And feel free to follow me on any of my other social media platforms, which you can find in the description below. See you next time!

5 thoughts on “How Fish Adapt to Darkness

  1. I found you from your post on the nerdfighter facebook page. I love this concept and it is very well done. Your channel will blow up soon!

  2. Great vid ! Love your drawings. It feel weird when you talk face to the camera, like there is not a perfect sync between the sound and your lips, is it played back ? Otherwise it's very cool. Keep going.

  3. Amino acids are like sa re ga ma pa of music , different combination of amino acid leads to different protein formation , which plays crucial roles in specific needed adaptation, and nothing happens as an accident, when body feels or is succumbed to trouble, specific protein'$ function signal recepter fails to send response to cns from afferent system from the point of annomali and as a result the efferent system sends signal to the point of annomali, so as to get the feedback about the all aspact of a problem, then since the body has in momery of some connection between afferent and efferent signal impulse sync when the body performs homeostasis, thus depending on the memory and then after annomali the deviation from memory and normal functioning the body generates signal to restore normal conditioned when , then typed protein secretion through memory and normalcy routine path, ( annomali is either the specific protein is not functioning, or unmanufactured or some other variation has occurred , which is not required) so the body responds by stopping or curbing the bracket written , it tries to re issue the normalcy protein by again combination and permutation of the avail able proteins to form a specific protein, this happens in a level of uptill protein, as amino acid combination perputation to form some same pre available amino acid may alter the gene and species manipulation may take place, ie, catla catla may be modified to some other sp as the genes specific for catla genus would change if amino acids would combine to form new aminom acid, amino acids would combine to form protein, formation of amino acid combination for new aminoacid manufacture is not a short time natural process , in lab possible in nature , max sex reversal is possible, but coalosence is impossible๐Ÿ˜, you are teaching me gre biochemistry , you will tell me like story I will remember the story and moral Grann Maa ๐Ÿ•‰๏ธ๐Ÿ•‰๏ธ๐Ÿ•‰๏ธ๐Ÿ•‰๏ธ

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