One Fish Two Fish – KET Episode 204

One Fish Two Fish – KET Episode 204


On this episode of Food News and
Chews Chef Jeremy and Sylvia are on an
aquatic adventure at the Kentucky State University
Aquaculture Center. Then Chef Jeremy uses aquaulture
tilapia to make a fish salad. That’s all coming up
on Food News and Chews. (Music) Food News and Chews is brought
to you by these proud sponsors Alltech: Helping farmers feed
the world Azur Restaurant and Patio:
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quality, all natural meats –
guaranteed (Music) Hey Jeremy! Yes! We’re gonna visit fish today! Hahaha! I’m so excited! Can we feed
them? I knew there was something fishy
about today. So what are we
doing today? We’re gonna talk about
aquaculture and it’s really
gaining… and I’m gonna tell you.. I’m gonna give you a
quiz. And you’ve got to answer
all the questions correctly. I’m not good at this stuff. I’m gonna do a history lesson
for you, real quick about 4
points, ok? And you’re going to react to
aquaculture because people don’t
know much about it. But here’s the deal: Why do we
do it? Why do we raise fish? And this is what aquaculture is
all about is raising fish and
some plants I believe hydroponically and we’re
starting to do a recycling and
kind of an ecosystem and we’re doing
that because one, we like a good
fish sandwich, right? Hahaha! That’s exactly right! I mean we
have to eat just like we have to
raise vegetables, right? And health issues are that fish
is getting… and did you know
that aquaculture actually feeds half
the world’s population and will
probably have to do more of that. And we don’t realize that you
know it’s very prominent already
and most of it’s from other countries. But you
know the popularity is gonna sky
rocket just because the omega-6 omega-3
aspects of eating fish. It’s the health befits alone. Plus it’s
just delicious. Delicious and also controlled
conditions. You know unlike in
the wild, now I hate to say this, but this is
where science is very good for
us. And I guess I don’t hate to say that. I know science
gets much maligned today but you know actually we’re
learning that having a
controlled environment is actually not a bad thing. And
then the other thing is that as
fishes get depleted out of the ocean, “real”
fishermen are actually starting
to kind of put their feet in both worlds of actually
catching fish and actually doing
aquaculture. So you’re seeing a whole lot of
blending of the technologies and
that sort of thing. But, Jeremy you know
we have issues with aquaculture
and what are some of those? One of the biggest things I
think about with aquaculture
we’ve got wild caught fish we’ve got raised fish and
there can be some from what I
understand environmental concerns from an
aquaculture facility. Now the
thing about it is this research is extremely
important. I’m all about it. I
love it. Because we’ve got to find a way to supplement
what we’re taking out of the
ocean. And this is just like um, you know we
talk about the local food system
now and we gotta find a way where small
farmers are learning from big ag
and big ag is learning from small farmers and
meeting in the middle because
we’ve got to eat. And nine billion people coming
in 2050. Yeah and so if we depleted the
oceans by a third of out
species, at least now we’re kind of paying
attention to what species are
dwindling and we’re putting regulations on fishing to let
the ocean kind of catch up. But
we’re supplementing it with fish that we raise. It’s
like animals and vegetables that we raise. Well, let me bring up another
issue. I think we’re gonna learn
a little bit more about this in the facility that
we’re going to visit today on
aquaculture, but part of what was being done and the
technology is improving is actually feeding
wild fish to these captive fish,
which is also depleting. And so now I think that they’re
expanding the way we feed them and that they’re not only
feeding on wild fish from the
ocean, right? You have to think about the
environmental tax that it takes
to raise these fish. Especially when we deal
with meat on dry land it takes
so much grain to produce x amount of pounds of
beef, right? So if we’re really,
that’s not a sustainable circle, right? So in
aquaculture if we’re using fish
out of the ocean to raise aquaculture, land
lock fish for us to eat, it’s
not really a sustainable system. So the thing
that people don’t realize i
think is that fish eat other fish, right in the
ocean? But that type of protein
doesn’t necessarily have to come from
fish. Now a lot of the feed that
we give the aquaculture fish probably have a
lot of the grains and things
that are also. But people have controversy
there. Are we feeding them
GMO’s? Oh yes! You know cheap GMO grains in
their pellets. Well that’s gotten such a bad
play, GMO, everything
that’s…who was it the famous guy that did research on
peas? Not pee but peas! Haha! Mendel? Yeah! Oooh! I’m impressed! Ha! Well you’re closer to the eighth
grade than I am. All I learned was fill out the
boxes and it told me I have
brown eyes. That’s about as much as I know. But you know working with that
system, that’s something that’s
been done since the beginning of time. You
breed a big giant bull to a
gorgeous cow and what do you get? Well selective breeding versus
GMO, there’s a big difference in
good GMO’s and bad GMO’s. Selective
breeding is pretty much natural
selection, natural process. But we know
that there are situations where
we’re putting a pear gene into a a strawberry. Yeah. You know for better
transportation, better shelf
life, or better color. And that
‘s where it kind of crosses the
boundaries for me. Sure. But selective breeding is kind
of a natural process, even
though we tend to accelerate it. Well disease is another issue,
but they’re conquering that as
well. And you know where we can find all the
answers to all these questions!? Yeah cause these populations do
get diseases and that’s a big
issue. How do you treat that… Antibiotics and all that
stuff… But anyway we’re going
to get the answer. Oh man, you are so smart. But
we’re gonna go and find out
about all of these things aren’t we? Where
are we going? We’re going to Kentucky State
University to their aquaculture
facility which is now got aquaponics. I was
talking to Angela the other day
and I can’t wait to see what’s going on over
there. It’s grown so much and
all this stuff they can explain. I just like to
research it. Yeah, but you sound so smart. (Music) I’m Jim Tidwell and I’m the
chair of the division of
aquaculture here. You just like are the head guy
that like send everybody
scurrying to get all the work done. In the aquaculture side of the
world. Ahaha! Well why don’t you tell
us about what we see around us? Well we’ve got a lot things
going and I think you’ll see
some of it in more particulars and specifics. One
of the ones I don’t think we’ve
talked about is not everything to do with
aquaculture is about food. This
particular project is we’re working with
University of California San
Diego and Stanford University came to us
and asked us to work on a
project with them in Senegal. On the western coast
of Africa. and they have a
disease over there. You’ve seen the pictures
of the little kids with the big
bellies? Yeah! the big bellies! It’s called schistosomiasis.
Well that is, the disease has a
vector we call it that lives in a snail in the
river. There used to be fresh
water prawns that lived in that river and they
built a dam, the prawns dies
out. The prawns died out, they used to keep the
snails under control. Mother Nature’s cycle of
ecosystems So what we’re trying to do is to
figure out how to hatch these
prawns, stock them back in the river, eat the
snails, which is the disease
vector, and actually cure a disease in
Africa. (Music) These are tilapia. This is your
fastest growing aquaculture
species. This is a world wide species, it gorws
fast. It tolerates fairly
crowded conditions as you see. It will take minimal feeds
as far as doesn’t need fish
meal, doesn’t need a lot of protein, doesn’t you
know use a lot of plant based
diets. We’ve got the different genetic strains going
in here. and then these recycle
systems like you see over here, they’re ready to
eat look at that. Oh ho ho! We can grow them up to densities
of a half pound per gallon of
water or more. Oh look they’re spitting out on
us! What are these tanks for? These tanks are set up to do
feed trials. We do a lot of
nutritional work. We’re working with Alltech, we’re
working with a number of other
feed companies in the state. To look at developing
alternative feeds. So when you
do research like this you have to have replicate
systems to do the statistically
valid research. That’s what these little systems
are for. And that’s what this is
for. So we’d feed like 1 diet to 3 tanks and
another diet to 3 more tanks. That guy looks lonely up there.
We need to help him out. Probably an attitude problem is
why he’s up there. They didn’t like that feed. Hahaha! This one’s working pretty well. He ate all the rest of them! Maybe so. We’re looking at things like
distiller’s grains from the
distilleries, we’re looking at brewers grains. By-products! Cheap. We’re looking at algae meals.
This is what this is set up to
do. (Music) You guys want to feed them? Yeah let’s do this! So tell me
about feed. What do you use to
feed aquaculture, aquaponics fish? Tilapia where they’re not a
predator they can come to the
surface and eat it very quickly unlike a large
mouth bass that likes to lunge
after it’s food. They’ll come up and graze around
the top. So we feed these guys a floating
pellet. And it’s mostly
vegetable protein. Look at their little mouths! We do ass a little bit of
attractants and that might be a
little bit of fish oil or fish meal, Just because they’ll
get the scent of it. (Music) Half the world’s Population now
depends on aquaculture! Absolutely! Ah! Aren’t you impressed? I
Googled that. 90 percent of our fish eaten in
the US is farm raised, is
imported, and 70 percent of that is
farm-raised. And you have the health issue
too. People are just eating more
fish. They are eating more fish
because of health but also food
security. People really want to know where
their food is coming from. They
want to know the farmer. You know Jeremy
when we started working with the
prawns 10 years ago people would shy
away from paying 10, 12, 14
dollars for a pound. They’re not blinking an
eye if they know where it’s
grown here in the US. Well after all the news reports
that you have. It’s a big shift. From exported from a country and
it’s turning out it’s not even
the fish you thought you were getting. And that’s not saying that
imported fish is bad. But it
doesn’t have the same control we have here in the US,
right. Sylvia we’ve talked about this a
lot, you know we always…
Angela is an expert. We hear the rumors that ok over
fishing, bad fishing practices
around the world are kind of devastating or
depleting a lot species. So
aquaponics, aquaculture and raising your own food sound
to be gonna be a big issue in
the future. It’s a huge issue. Plus there’s all kinds of
innovations happening with
aquaculture. there’s huge.. Isn’t there the idea that you
really do know how to bring
together, because fish have a natural culture like
density and things like that. Right we want to optimize. You don’t want o stress the, Right because a stressed fish is
a dead fish. And that’s not
going to help. And we want to optimize that. So take
in the best density for the feed
that’s available and we’re really trying to get away
from using fish meal and use
other things. Plant based to replace some of that. Is that because of the stigma
that people have about fish meal
or is it just a bad product? I mean because in the
ocean, fish eat other fish. Right. It’s not the same as cows
being fed cows. There’s no such
thing as mad fish disease, ok. One of the
things we see though is the
ocean harvests are at maximum. We can still
harvest them, and fish are
reproducing, but we can’t increase the harvest by
any amount. When you think about
population growth and now in the US it’s
going to double by 2050 we have
to think how are we gonna feed these people. So
the quickest fastest way of
protein production is through fish production. Well
we can’t keep feeding them the
same diets because that would require more
fish being taken out of the
ocean. So we want to kind of find that nice
balance where we don’t have to
take anymore fish meal out, but still make a palatable
feed and increase our
production. (Music) My name is Janelle Hager, I’m a
research associate her in
aquaponics here at Kentucky State. Um alumni, KSU
for my master;s degree. So I’m
happy to be back working in this great
field. So aquaponics. It’s a little
symbiotic ecosystem here right? It is an ecosystem, yes. So what is going on in this
tank? So this is the fish tanks, This
is where all the fish are help.
We also feed into this tank obviously. The feed we
supply help grow the fish but
also is the driving factor in our plant growth as
well. So you know the fish are
definitely a core component, but you need to feed
them the right balanced complete
diet of food. So this is the highest point of
your system. Everything else is
gravity fed until it enter into the sub tank which is
just below here. So it’s really
convenient. Only 1 pump in the system which is
great. So after it moves from
this tank it goes into our clarifier. You ll see this
is where we try to get out the
settlable solids. So all the solids will settle to the bottom
and we’re able to release the
valve and clear the solids every day. So we do that
daily. From there it goes into
our biofiltration tank. It’s also the process of
mineralization occurs here. And
that’s basically the breakdown of these organic
nutrients into an inorganic form
that the plants can take up. And that’s how we
get all those macro and micro
nutrients out of the feed. So you get that and then you
fertilize… Yep, so basically the water runs
from our biofiltration tank down
one bed, up the other and feed into the sump
tank. Nice. And then back into the fish. Yeah and then back into the fish
tank. And everything looks pretty and
green. That’s exactly right. And it’s
really cool. So typically I
don’t know if you’ve covered this but recirculating
aquaculture kind of by
definition is 10 percent or less
water exchange .per day. And these
systems operate on 1 percent or
less. Very efficient. So really efficient. Saving
water. (Music) Ok so here we have a
buttercrunch lettuce. These take
from seedling about 5 weeks or from seed so we
normally grow them for 1 to 2
weeks in our (unintelligible) Which is down
here in the next bed. And then
they’re in the system for 3 weeks and ready to
harvested. We have some Swiss
and rainbow chard here. Down at the end of
the system we have a zucchini.
Which is the 3 larger plants. So we also have
some tot soy on the which is
kind of like bok choy. Some mustard greens, basil, and
of course everybody loves kale
and sage on the end so. Nice. And our little aloe plant our
survivor down there which is
kind of crazy. And on the back bed I don’t know if you
can see we have jalapeno
peppers. (Music) This is the genetics lab, this
is the next frontier of
aquaculture. I don’t even know how that
works. I barely do. In all your other
animal enterprises – chickens,
pork, beef – they’ve been selecting, they’ve been
domesticated, they’ve been
improving the breeds andlots of different
breeds for different uses for
generation if not a thousand years. We’re
basically working with wild
animals. So we have to domesticate them and then we
start like chicken breeds, you
have pastured poultry breeds and you have
chicken house breeds, so part of
that is what we still need to do and by using
the techniques and technologies
that they’ve developed and others, we can do
it faster. The other thing, most
fish are mature in a year or two, They
don’t take six years or seven
years. The other thing about a fish, they don’t
have 3 babies or 10 babies, they
have 100,000 babies. So we think we
can move really fast in this.
Like I said, this is not genetically
modified, this is just using
high tech genetic tools to do classic selection quicker. (Music) Hey Jer! Hey what? Hahaha! Hey! We brought back
some of those guys from our
aquaculture visit didn’t we? That was incredible! I may have petted that one! You probably did. That was a
whopper! That was a big tilapia. They said those things didn’t
have any teeth. I take
issue.Well they can still bite. Hey! What’s all this? We;; I thought we’d do a fish
salad. So one of my favorite
ways to eat fish is a little bit of cornmeal
crust because that’s just a
great texture, like a crunch to the outside. So we’ll do what
I call a buttermilk bathe and then cornmeal fried. Also you
could do corn bread if you want
to instead of cornmeal you could break up old
corn bread. Oh I never thought about that! That gives it more of a breaded
texture which I like as well. And use up your old cornbread. Right. So you know i thought we
have these great vegetables from aquaponics we’ve got some fresh
sage. [gasp] I say vegetables, it’s more like
greens. So we’ve got pok choy
we’ve got a little bit of kale there,
some bibb lettuce. Oh these were beautiful when
they were growing. Isn’t that nice? So I figured
we’d make a little dish with all
those ingredients. Sounds good! First of all… What can I do to help you out? Well I’m going to have you make
a dressing but first we need to get the fish into the skillet. I was just kidding! Alright. So just like you would at home,
you know granny’s old skillet
for frying, we’re gonna put some oil in it.
Not too much. Just enough to
coat the bottom of the pan. Ok Right there for one big fillet
that’s probably about a half a
cup. Ive got this fish that’s been soaking in
buttermilk for a while, right? Mmmhmm. Better in buttermilk
than plain milk? It holds to the fish better and
i like the acidic balance it
has. This is just cornmeal, salt, and
pepper. You could also marinate
the fish in buttermilk and hot sauce. Like
tobasco, or like a buffalo
sauce. Sure. That doesn’t make the fish
buffalo tasting but it does add
a good spice. What is buffalo taste? Explain
that to me. Like cayenne pepper sauce
basically. It’s just a hot sauce. Cayenne and vinegar and
typically a little bit of sugar
kind of made into a puree. So we’ll lay the fish
down and just kind of let that
guy cook and fry or pan fry. And how long do you keep in on
each side? You know this one shouldn’t take
much longer than four minutes on each side. Ok. I don’t have the heat on too
high because we’re going to do a
little work over here. My breading always falls off. Is
there like a trick to that? There is. If you don’t use
buttermilk, use egg and milk. Oh cause that adds the… But also flour the fish first.
Then put it into the egg
mixture, then put it into your breading. And
that’s called penne and will
make anything stick. Ok It;s a little bit extra
breading, but it works. Over
here I want to make a citrus and sorghum dressing. Oh ho! So think that sounds like a good
salad dressing. Oh it sounds delicious! So I though we’d start, Sylvia
with the orange zest wich is in
this bowl here. Now what is this? That’s orange zest. The zest of
one orange. The zest as in… Now see that whole grain mustard
there? Yeah. Let’s add about a tablespoon.
Yeah there you go use the the
fork, That’s good. You see I even know how to do
that. About this much? Um a little bit more. Alright. There you go, That should do it.
Um so mustard is an emulsifier,
right? Cause we’re making a vinaigrette
it actually helps the dressing
stay together. And emulsifier means… You see
how little I know. No! You get it. It makes it kind
of stay together. Will you send me to culinary
school for this show? This is culinary school. Ok. Oh! We’re gonna make you skip all
those grades. Gotcha. Now see this right here. That is
apple cider vinegar. Ok It’s got about a quarter of a
cup. It’s actually used in a lot of
stuff isn’t it? Well people praise its health
benefits. Yeah that’s what I’ve heard! Inside the vinegar is usually
something called a mother. The
mother is like this anaerobic bacterial, i
don’t know exactly what it is,
but it makes vinegar vinegar and it has lots of
health benefits like probiotics I guess. Quarter cup of cider
vinegar in there. There you go.
Now this is orange juice. The juice of the
orange that I zested. Zesting is like… is that the
peel? Yeah the peel. The outside. But
not the white pith. So that’s
just fresh squeezed orange juice. And I pour that in? Yep the juice of one orange. Alright. Now we’re gonna take this
sorghum, probably a quarter cup
and drizzle that in there. It’s gonna be
kind of sticky so use your fork
to scrape it out. There you go. Hey what’s the difference
between sorghum and molasses? Sorghum comes from the sorghum
plant. Uh-huh. Molasses is basically sugar cane
that’s just bubbled and boiled
down to a black goo. Both of which
are very good. And they have a
lot of the same cooking process. Do they taste similar? They don’t taste similar. I
think they’re worlds apart. Ok. So now that you’ve got this base
Sylvia, use your little fork and
kind of mix it all together, right? Go
one direction because we’re
going to emulsify the oil into that. Ok. What about those little clumps?
Should I do something about
those? I’ll lift this bowl so you can
kind of… I like to get my
fork, just kind of go like this. Technique! Right. So we’re breaking it all
up and we’re just going to whisk
in this oil real quick. And what kind of oil is that? This is just a vegetable oil. Ok. So now you’ve got a dressing. Mmm! It looks good. It’s about time to flip our
fish. Ok Need a spatula for that. This was an amazing place that
we went to wasn’t it where they have… It was. I kind of messed that
one up there. These tanks of fish… well
probably a lot of people at home
do that too, right? Just so it tastes
good! But that was an amazing
thing. Lovely. To see them grow these things.
And the shrimp and it was just
an amazing thing. And that
experiment that they did for the
an African population. They’re growing shrimp that will
help with some other
populations. That replaces the ecosystem. Fascinating. So I’m going to
taste this. It’s amazing. You
want to try it? Nice little refreshing salad
dressing. That is good! That’s a keeper! So what we’re gonna do is at
home you know people make
bottles of dressing in big amounts. I
usually just do a little whisk
in a mixing bowl. And I simply just tear my greens
right into it. You know it kind
of takes up less dishes. There you go.
There’s the kales. Some pok
choy. What was that? Pok choy. Yep, pok choy, not bok choy. And
you know what’s really neat
Sylvia is tearing your greens is much
better than cutting them
anyways. Hey you know the really neat
thing about hyroponics? What’s that? You don’t have to pick the
little worms off and stuff. That’s true there’s not a whole
lot of insects. You don’t even have to wash it! So you’ve got that, now we can
toss it all up. I’ll use this
fork and kind of get this stuff dressed. Now
to this mixture, now we’re going
to make this a nice composed salad. I’m
gonna use quarter cup of
cranberries, little bit of fresh corn, some
walnuts. Oh you’re killing me! This
sounds so good! Roasted red pepper. [gasp] And what’s this? That’s country ham. Go for it.
This is blue cheese. Hey who needs the fish? Hahaha! Now his is a cool salad, right? I didn’t say that. Protein! So we’ve got all these goodies.
and you know what we’re gonna do is get these all mixed up. We’ll
put a nice pile down. Yeah. On this plate here. And then I
like all the goodies to be on
top. Oh yeah! Right. And then I’ve got lots of
little crispy onions here to put
on top. Just to garnish right? Now what? So our fish is done. It looks so good! I did an un-chefly like thing
and broke it a little bit.
That’s just me being a little sloppy. Did we say that was tilapia? Yes, exactly. So what we’ve got
is the cornmeal crusted tilapia. This was a big fish too, right? Yeah! That was a big fella. Gonna have some good eating.
We’re going to put the little cornmeal crusted fish right
there. How pretty! And you know I just think this
is great for a little summer
time lunch. You know sitting out on the
patio at the restaurant. Can I taste? Oh please! That’s what’s it’s
all about. Make sure you get all
those goodies in that salad. Got a
whole nother portion here for
me. I just want to put my face in to
it. Yeah I want to taste that fish
that we just took out of the
water, so. Mmm! That is so good! Making a
mess! Ok! Fabulous! Aquaculture, aquaponics, taste
how fresh it is. I would eat
that any day of the week. Serve it to
anybody. Oh it was delicious! If you guys want to make this at
home always go to foodnewsandchews.com for the
recipe and also contact information for Kentucky State
or anywhere you can buy aquaculture in Kentucky. Alright, see you next time! (Music) Food News and Chews is brought
to you by these proud sponsors Alltech: Helping farmers feed
the world Azur Restaurant and Patio:
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