Why Doesn’t Winter Kill All The Fish And Plants?

Why Doesn’t Winter Kill All The Fish And Plants?

Hey there and welcome to Life Noggin, I’m lucky enough to live in cyberspace,
where the circuits are toasty and you can always get a warm cup of hot chocolate from
your loving Motherboard. But many of my human friends know these times
as that chilly season called Winter. You may be able to bundle up in sweaters and
roast marshmallows around the fireplace, but what happens to plants and fish during these
cold months? Well, luckily for our aquatic friends, when
the temperature outside falls below the freezing point of water, only the top layers of lakes
or rivers typically freeze. Under the frozen layer, the water remains
in its liquid state and oxygen is trapped below the ice. This gives fish the environment to survive,
but the colder waters and other conditions — like less access to food — cause life
below the ice to slow down. Certain species like cod and flatfish have
a reduced metabolic rate in these times and produce molecules in their bodily fluids that
lower their freezing point so they don’t freeze. What about plants? Just like how you prepare for winter by stocking
up on warmer clothes and pumpkin spice lattes, plants also take steps to prepare for the
coming cold. You know when you see the leaves changing
color in Autumn and then falling off? That’s actually part of a process known
as abscission, where most deciduous trees shed their leaves after their colors change
from a loss of chlorophyll, the chemical that’s involved in photosynthesis. With the lack of water and sunlight in the
winter months, there’s less photosynthesis and eventually less chlorophyll, allowing
the leaves’ other colors to appear. But how do plants know that winter is coming? A certain Game of Thrones character must have
told them, right? Surely you’d warn the plants when you’re
played by Sean /Bean/. All joking aside, plants appear to have a
“stress memory”, in that they have the ability to respond more efficiently to a stressor
like cold the second time that it’s introduced. Many different environmental stressors have
been shown to alter the chromatin and epigenetic marks of plants, providing evidence within
their chromosomes that they do indeed have memories of stress. This is not downright proof that this /must/
be true, but it does strongly support the theory of plant’s stress memory. So once plants are all set up for winter,
how do they survive? Well, there is one big thing that the salads
of the world have to worry about more than our forks; they need to protect their cells
from damaging ice crystals, especially ones that would form inside the cells themselves. Many plants guard against this by using a
defensive dehydration mechanism. The plants move water out of the cells and
into the area /between/ the cells. Intracellular ice formation is generally considered
lethal for plants, but ice /outside/ the cell has the potential to be survived. This is largely due to the cell wall of a
plant’s cell making it stronger than our puny animal cells. Some trees also add there own delicious twist
to fight winter’s freezing. The fluid inside the tree’s cell that used
to be mainly water is changed to contain far more sugars after dehydration. This sugary sap gives the cells a lower freezing
point, further protecting them from Jack Frost’s touch. So what are you doing to help survive the
chills of winter? Let me know in the comments below! Make sure you come back every Monday for a
brand new video. As always, I’m Blocko and this has been
Life Noggin. Don’t forget to keep on thinking!

99 thoughts on “Why Doesn’t Winter Kill All The Fish And Plants?

  1. I live in Texas so, if it weren't for calendars, I wouldn't even notice that it's winter some years. One year it was over 100 degrees and all of the trees still had leaves.

  2. 1 day I was walking through wartermead with my grandma we saw a dead fish!(that was in winter and we're I live England

  3. They evolved to survive the cold. We would if we didn’t make houses or you know ANYTHING WARM

  4. 0:30 If the layer of the sea freezes , How are dolphins gonna come up and breathe 😱😱😱

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  6. Because plant cells are made in a formation called β€œCell Walls”, Putting certain plant viruses away from the cells would mean spreading the viruses.

  7. Everything we know through science is wrong people but we follow it because…….. It hasn't been proven wrong yet

  8. I stalk up on cozy sweaters, Netflix, and blankets,get some s'mores and a pumpkin spice latte with a good dose of Christmas music on repeat and BOOM! That's my perfect winter

  9. You my friend just received a subscribe AND a thumbs up. Great graphics, sound FX, and narration is simple, CLEAR, and great littler side jokes! GREAT VIDEO!!!! Keep up the great work bro!

  10. I thought that for some plants (i think evergreen plants) , have the ability to transfer all the food in the leafs into its stem, and that when the leaves fall off, the food is saved. If not, can you explain more clearly how evergreen plants survive the winter?

  11. ever since i bought a good jacket with a big hood worth of 400$ , i have not been sick in all winter (just in the edge of being sick)

  12. I live in saturn, and if its winter or if the temperature is too cold, i move to earth specifically in indonesia where we dont have winter. For all you- [ACCESS DENIED, PLEASE AUTHENTICATE]
    Authentication… Done! Access granted to comment to other planet.

    Anyways, good luck to yall in wintry cold places! I also live in freezing Saturn but in winter I move here! Byeee

  13. I hate the humor and I don’t know what game of thrones is I don’t keep up with that nerdy stuff.

  14. our fish that lives in the school garden named George lived under the freezing ice this winter and I was so suprised he didn't freeze. Now i have answers! πŸŒ€πŸ’–βœ¨

  15. I have a few questions on what the water temperature is in freshwater below the ice? Why I ask is I take ice baths and use a red laser light temperature gun and when I measure the water temperature in the horse trough it says temperatures of 18-26 F . This was when evening air temperatures were 8-20 F all night. Now I'm also moving the ice out of the way when measuring the water temperature. The trough is metal and so radiates cold to the water in ambient air temperatures of let's say as an example 10 F. So a 100 gallon horse trough will have colder water temperature readings of unfroze water beneath the ice? It is probably best to just get a pool or pond thermometer but liked the quickness of the the temperature gun being so fast.

    Is like river water which moves below the 32 F temperature mark unfrozen?

    I know saltwater goes below freezing and recall people swimming in the Antarctic in temperatures of 26 F .

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